A Vietnamese colleague criticized my recent article in VnExpress International for being too negative. It was a warning about what Vietnam should not do in higher education, but it said little about what Vietnam should do. The purpose of this second article is to give an answer to the latter question.
Vietnam must act quickly to improve the conditions at Vietnam National University (VNU) and the other government universities. The university system has the potential for rapid improvement if it is funded and supported adequately.
Vietnamese history and culture give grounds for optimism. Education is highly valued, teachers are respected; most students study hard and behave well in school. Vietnam has a generally good system of primary and secondary education that produces graduates that are talented and well-prepared by international standards.
Even during the most difficult difficult times, education and research have been a top priority for Vietnamese leaders. At the height of the French war, the Viet Minh press published a Vietnamese-language geometry textbook by Hoang Tuy to be used throughout the liberated zones.
At the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology in Hanoi, the Vietnamese government has funded over 30 research institutes in both basic and applied sciences. In 2010 it established the Vietnam Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics (VIASM), headed by Fields Medalist Ngo Bao Chau.
But unfortunately, funding of government universities has been woefully inadequate. Conditions for students and faculty at VNU, for example, are far below international standards. Salaries are so low that many faculty have to either work at a second job or else teach extra hours in order to earn enough to support their family. Faculty have no suitable place to meet with students outside of class (for oﬃce hours or special projects), and have little incentive to engage in research.
Government funding should be used for the improvement of the well-established universities; this is much more cost-effective than constructing new universities. In order to transform VNU and other leading government universities into world-class centers of learning and research (sometimes called “apex” universities), the government needs to increase both funding and oversight.
Priorities for funding should include: substantially increasing faculty salaries; improving the physical facilities for both formal and informal faculty-student interaction; providing fellowships for post-graduate students in both Masters and PhD programs in Vietnam; and providing incentives for research, such as research grants and sabbaticals.
In mathematics some initial efforts in this direction have already been taken by VIASM, the mathematics institute, through its visitor program. This needs to be expanded to all ﬁelds, not just mathematics, and it should not be necessary to create new institutes in order to administer such programs. Sabbaticals, grants, fellowships, enhanced salaries, and better facilities should be supplied directly to the universities in all ﬁelds.
Students at one of Vietnam's top medical schools in Hanoi. Photo by VnExpress/Giang Huy
Vietnam must create the type of conditions that will encourage many of the best students to remain in Vietnam for their university studies and, if they go abroad for study, to later return to Vietnam in order to teach and do research in the universities. If Vietnam fails to do this, then the “brain drain” of talent away from the country will become unstoppable.
In addition, the Vietnamese government, acting through appointed committees of leading scholars, has an important role to play in quality control. It should establish government-appointed bodies of leading scientists and scholars to oversee all of the incentive systems (post-graduate fellowships, grants, and sabbaticals) and ensure that the most qualiﬁed people are given these incentives; return to the two-round system of approval of PhD’s by national committees of scholars; and require the national committees of scientists and scholars to approve all professorial appointments, so as to ensure quality control not only in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, but also in the provincial universities.
Some of these quality control measures are not used in the U.S., where, for example, individual PhD’s do not need any approval from outside the university. But in Vietnam post-graduate education is relatively recent — not surprisingly, since in the modern era Vietnam has been a uniﬁed independent country for only four decades. Nor does Vietnam have any accreditation infrastructure of the type we have in the U.S. and some other countries.
The Vietnamese leadership understood this when they instituted the “ﬁnal round” system that was in place until 2010. The direct result of the U.S. and the World Bank pressure on Vietnam to introduce “autonomy” has been the elimination of a crucial safeguard that had been instituted in order to ensure high standards for post-graduate degrees.
There has been some confusion in Vietnam about what a world-class “apex” university is. A 2009 report written by Fulbright people recommended that Americans should be hired to build such a university. However, the description of the planned university — which six years later took form as the Fulbright University Vietnam (FUV) — had little in common with the usual meaning of “university,” let alone “apex university.”
FUV reportedly will have two programs. One will be vocational — undergraduate training in engineering and related ﬁelds that supposedly will qualify graduates for jobs in the multinational companies. The other program will give a post-graduate degree in economics and policy; that is, it will train people to advocate for an American approach to political and economic questions. Since most of the funding for FUV comes from the U.S., this component of the university will ensure that it serves U.S. interests. The Americans running this program will encourage so-called “critical thinking” in opposition to socialism, but will certainly not encourage critical thinking about the failures and shortcomings of capitalism as practiced in the U.S.
The word “university” is closely related to the word “universal.” It is a place for universal knowledge. In addition to programs in practical areas, such as engineering, it must also give advanced degrees and conduct research in history, literature, the arts, and basic science and mathematics. A great university is a place where the nation’s best minds can ﬂourish; it is a place of national pride.
It is natural for a developing country to strive to have one or more such universities. Stanford University’s Prof. Joel Samoff, a leading American expert on Africa, has said: “The conduct of basic research and the opportunity for original thought are in the last resort the only means by which societies can take control of their destiny. Such a function is not a luxury that can be dispensed with for a period, pending better economic times, but an integral part of the development process itself.” I strongly agree with Prof. Samoff, whose words apply as much to Vietnam as to African countries.
It is a regrettable fact that in recent decades the U.S. government, in conjunction with the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), has been pressuring developing countries not to establish such universities. In the 1980s and 1990s, the central strategy of the U.S./WB/IMF was to impose “Structural Adjustment Programs” as a precondition for eligibility for new loans or for ﬂexibility in repaying old loans. “Structural adjustment” meant a drastically diminished state role in many areas, including education.
In our day the “Structural Adjustment Programs” as such no longer exist, but the same general philosophy — reduced state sector, increased privatization — is still at the heart of U.S./WB/IMF ideology. In recent times, in Vietnam the pressure coming from the U.S. and the World Bank is similar, although the words used have changed. The favorite buzzword now is “autonomy.” Whatever this word means in theory, in practice it means that the state should abandon its role as the principal source of funding and oversight in higher education. This would be a serious mistake.
A university that is controlled by Americans or by Vietnamese who are subservient to Americans must not be allowed to dominate the academic world in Vietnam. For Vietnam’s integrity and national security, it needs to have its own universities that are not controlled by any foreign power.
Those universities must be high-quality institutions that attract the best students and faculties. They must be centers of thinking and research that contribute to Vietnam’s scientiﬁc and economic progress and provide guidance in following an independent path free of neocolonial domination.
* Neal Koblitz is a professor of mathematics at the University of Washington, Seattle, U.S. The article does not necessarily reflect the views of VnExpress International or VnExpress. VnExpress International welcomes more discussion on this topic.